Valeria.Fontes's recent posts

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I'm terrible with naming, but my suggestion is to involve the idea of self-learning in the name.

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Soup wrote:
Hey Valeria,
This is a really interesting topic I think.
As I was starting to learn English in a serious way, ten years ago now, I noticed how people online gradually started saying "she" about a hypothetical person instead of "he", and then, more recently, how it started shifting to "they". Similarly, in French, the écriture inclusive is something that became quite prevalent recently: instead of writing les amis/les amies, you can write les ami-e-s. In Spanish, you can write lxs amigxs instead of los amigos/las amigas.
These are all examples of gender-neutral language [0], which is itself a subset of inclusive language [1]. The wiki pages in English and Portuguese about this are very poor compared to the ones in French or in German, for example, but they're informative nonetheless. And yes, it seems to be a new development, insofar as it's becoming socially accepted, and even expected in some circles, and is becoming the norm in official communication.
[0]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender-neutral_language
[1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclusive_language
Thanks for you comment! I had no information at all about this topic around the world. It was very surprising when you said that it's becoming the norm in official communication, because in Brasil it's connected to young university people and LGBTQ+ and feminist circles. With the political polarization of recent years, there's a dispute among left parties too, the most traditional ones arguing it's foolishness as long as we have "more serious and urgent issues" to turn to. 

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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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arroz - rice

feijão - beans

batata - potato

tomate - tomato

carne de vaca - beef

bife - steak

bife empanado -breaded steak

frango - chicken

peixe - fish

camarão - shrimp

carne de porco - pork

linguiça - sausage

molho - sauce

salada - salad

alface - lettuce

cebola - onion

alho - garlic

macarrão - pasta

ovo - egg

omelete - omelet

ovo frito - fried egg

pão - bread

manteiga - butter

leite - milk

café - coffee

açúcar - sugar

sal - salt

mel - honey

água - water

suco - juice

refrigerante - soda



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Tyler.Huff wrote:
Cantonese neatly avoids the pronoun issue by using 佢 (keoi5) for he, she and it.
Mandarin uses different characters but all are pronounced ta1.
Hey Tyler! But is it something new in the language?

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maçã - apple

pêra - pear

uva - grape

melancia - watermelon

melão - melon

laranja - orange

mexirica - tangerine

banana - banana

mamão - papaya

manga - mango

morango - strawberry

goiaba - guava

abacate - avocado

cereja - cherry

figo - fig

pêssego - peach

ameixa - plum




Edited
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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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Lately there has been a heated argument about gender in Portuguese. In my language we choose the masculine voice to address groups or to mean neutral voice, for example, if we need to say "everybody in this room", we'd pick "todos" instead of "todas" ("everybody" has a masculine and a feminine options). Now there are people using an invented word: "todes" or "todx"... The main argument is that language is alive and constantly changing. Although I agree on this statement, I'd say it doesn't change by decree. Is there anything similar hapenning in your own languages?

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comer - eat

mastigar - chew

engolir - swallow

digerir - digest

saborear - taste

beber - drink

bebericar - sip

experimentar - try

cheirar - smell

cozinhar - cook

assar - bake

fritar - fry

preparar/ fazer - make

congelar - freeze

refeição - meal

café da manhã - breakfast

almoço - lunch

jantar - dinner

ceia - supper

lanche - snack

jejum - fast



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cachorro - dog

cachorrinho, filhote - pup

gato - cat

gatinho, filhote - kitten

passarinho - bird

peixe - fish

cavalo - horse

égua - mare

potro - colt

galinha - hen

galo - rooster

pintinho - chick

pato - duck

patinho - duckling

porco - pig

porquinho, leitão - piglet

ovelha - sheep

carneiro - ram

ovelhinha, carneirinho - lamb

cabra, bode, cabrito - goat

vaca - cow

boi - ox

touro - bull

bezerro - calf





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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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mar - sea

rio - river

margem - bank

praia - beach

montanha - mountain

árvore - tree

flor - flower

folha - leaf

sol - sun

lua - moon

nuvem - cloud

estrela - star

céu - sky

horizonte - horizon

água - water

ar - air

terra - earth

fogo - fire

deserto - desert

duna - dune

lago - lake

colina - hill

cachoeira - waterfall

floresta - forest

selva - jungle

pântano/brejo - bog

plantas - plants

animais - animals



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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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In Brazil we study Portuguese as a school subject learning grammar (which makes kids hate it). Once I was told it's not like this in English speaking countries, but I've never understood how it happens. I'm curious! What about other countries?

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Pode me ajudar, por favor? - Can you help me, please?

Onde fica...? - Where is...?

Quanto custa....? - How much is.....?

Que horas...? - What time....?

O que é isso? - What's this?

Por que? - Why?

Quando? - When?

O que? - What?

Quem? - Who?

Como? - How

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respirar - breath

dormir - sleep

comer - eat

beber - drink

levantar - get up, stand up

andar, caminhar - walk

sentar - sit

escrever - write

ler - read

contar - count

falar - speak

conversar - talk

dizer - say

escutar - listen

ouvir - hear

cheirar - smell

tocar - touch

experimentar - taste

sentir - feel

chorar - cry

sorrir - smile

rir - laugh

estudar - study

sair - go out

entrar - get in

viajar - travel


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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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alto - tall

baixo - short

estatura mediana - medium height

gordo - fat

magro - slim

malhado - fit

moreno - dark-haired, dark skin

loiro - blond

bronzeado - tanned

pele clara - fair skin


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longo/comprido - long

curto - short

chanel - bob

"no ombro" - shoulder length

enrolado - curly

liso - straight

ondulado - wavy

cacho - lock

franja - bangs

trança - braid

trançado - braided

coque - bun

rabo de cavalo - pony tail

maria-chiquinha - pigtails

penteado - hairdo

castanho - brow

castanho claro - light brown

castanho escuro - dark brown

preto - black

loiro - blond

ruivo - red

branco - grey

careca - bald


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Lingtola sounds really weird for Portuguese speakers because "tola" is a word and it means "stupid". 

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prato - dish

copo - glass

talheres - silverware

garfo - fork

faca - knife

colher - spoon

guardanapo - napkin

toalha de mesa - tablecloth

xícara - cup

caneca - mug

tijela - bowl

bandeja - tray

panela - pot

liquidificador - blender

geladeira - fridge



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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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cabeça - head

cabelo - hair

testa - forehead

orelhas - ears

sobrancelhas - eyebrows

olhos - eyes

nariz - nose

boca - mouth

lábios - lips

dentes - teeth

língua - tongue

queixo - chin

pescoço - neck

tronco - body, torso

ombros - shoulders

braços - arms

cotovelos - elbows

mãos - hands

dedos - fingers

pulso - wrist

peito - chest

barriga - belly

umbigo - belly button

cintura - waist

quadril - hips

virilha - groin

pênis - penis

vulva - vulva

pernas - legs

joelhos - knees

canela - shin

pés - feet

calcanhar - heel

batata da perna/ panturrilha - calf

nádegas/ bunda - buttocks


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bonito-feio - beautiful-ugly

quente - frio - hot-cold

grande - pequeno - big-small

claro - escuro - clear-dark

alto - baixo - high-low

gordo - magro - fat-thin

legal - chato - nice-boring

fraco - forte - weak-strong

cedo - tarde - early-late

perto - longe - close-far


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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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camiseta - Tshirt

camisa - shirt

calça - pants

short - shorts

casaco - coat

saia - skirt

vestido - dress

sapato - shoe

meia - sock

colete - vest

blusa - blouse

meia-calça - tights

calcinha - panty

soutien - bra

cueca - briefs

cinto - belt

moleton - sweatshirt

malha - sweater

jaqueta - jacket


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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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Os pronomes possessivos combinam com o substantivo em gênero e número: meu carro, meus carros, minha boneca, minhas bonecas, teu irmão, teus irmãos, tua irmã, tuas irmãs, seu amigo, seus amigos, sua amiga, suas amigas, nosso país, nossos países, nossa mãe, nossas mães, vosso interesse, vossos interesses.

No dia-a-dia, tendemos a usar "seu, sua, seus, suas" no lugar de "teu, tua, teus, tuas" e "dele, dela, deles, delas" no lugar de "seu, sua, seus, suas", por exemplo, "o amigo dela" ao invés de "seu amigo", "a casa deles", "a rua delas".

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Na escola aprendemos os pronomes pessoais assim: eu, tu, ele, ela, nós, vós, eles, elas. No entanto, no dia-a-dia, na maior parte do país, usamos "você" ao invés de "tu" e "vocês" ao invés de "vós", além de uma preferência por dizer "a gente", ao invés de "nós" (por exemplo, "a gente gosta" ao invés de "nós gostamos"). Em algumas regiões usa-se bastante o "tu", embora muitas vezes conjugado como se fosse "você" ("tu vais" seria a conjugação correta, mas usa-se "tu vai", por exemplo)

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Na escola, aprendemos a conjugação dos verbos no tempo futuro da seguinte maneira:

1a conjugação - amar: eu amarei, tu amarás, ela/ele amará, nós amaremos, vós amarei, elas/eles amarão

2a conjugação - entender: eu entenderei, tu entenderás, ela/ele entenderá, nós entenderemos, vós entendereis, elas/eles entenderão

3a conjugação - conseguir: eu conseguirei, tu conseguirás, ela/ele conseguirá, nós conseguiremos, vós conseguireis, elas/eles conseguirão

No entanto, no dia-a-dia usamos uma expressão com o verbo ir para formar o futuro, além de usarmos o "você/ vocês" ao invés de "tu/vós':

1) eu vou amar, você vai amar, ela/ele vai amar, nós vamos amar, vocês vão amar, elas/eles vão amar

2) eu vou entender, você vai entender, ela/ele vai entender, nós vamos entender, vocês vão entender, elas/eles vão entender

3) eu vou conseguir, você vai conseguir, ela/ele vai conseguir, nós vamos conseguir, vocês vão conseguir, elas/eles vão conseguir


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sorrir: eu sorri, você sorriu, ela/ele sorriu, nós sorrimos, vocês sorriram, elas/eles sorriram

prevenir: preveni, preveniu, preveniu, prevenimos, preveniram, preveniram

partir: parti, partiu, partiu, partimos, partiram, partiram

conseguir: consegui, conseguiu, conseguiu, conseguimos, conseguiram, conseguiram

ir: eu fui, você foi, ela/ele foi, nós fomos, vocês foram, elas/eles foram

vir: vim, veio, veio, viemos, vieram, vieram

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ler: eu li, você leu, ela/ele leu, nós lemos, vocês leram, elas/eles leram

escrever: escrevi, escreveu, escreveu, escrevemos, escreveram, escreveram

prender: prendi, prendeu, prendeu, prendemos, prenderam, prenderam

correr: corri, correu, correu, corremos, correram, correram

aparecer: apareci, apareceu, apareceu, aparecemos, apareceram, apareceram

eleger: elegi, elegeu, elegeu, elegemos, elegeram, elegeram

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falar: eu falei, você falou, ela/ele falou, nós falamos, vocês falaram, elas/eles falaram

cantar: cantei, cantou, cantou, cantamos, cantaram, cantaram

jogar: joguei, jogou, jogou, jogamos, jogaram, jogaram

pagar: paguei, pagou, pagou, pagamos, pagaram, pagaram

pegar: peguei, pegou, pegou, pegamos, pegaram, pegaram

chegar: cheguei, chegou, chegou, chegamos, chegaram, chegaram

comprar: comprei, comprou, comprou, compramos, compraram, compraram

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Dormir: eu durmo, você dorme, ela/ele dorme, nós dormimos, vocês dormem, elas/eles dormem

Partir: eu parto, você parte, ela/ele parte, nós partimos, vocês partem, elas/eles partem

Corrigir: eu corrijo, você corrige, ela/ele corrige, nós corrigimos, vocês corrigem, elas/eles corrigem

Abrir: eu abro, você abre, ela/ele abre, nós abrimos, vocês abrem, elas/eles abrem

Sorrir: eu sorrio, você sorri, ela/ele sorri, nós sorrimos, vocês sorriem, elas/eles sorriem

Ir: eu vou, você vai, ela/ele vai, nós vamos, vocês vão, elas/eles vão

Vir: eu venho, você vem, ela/ele vem, nós vimos, vocês vêm, elas/eles vêm


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Ler: eu leio, você lê, ela/ele lê, nós lemos, vocês lêem, elas/eles lêem

Escrever: eu escrevo, você escreve, ela/ele escreve, nós escrevemos, vocês escrevem, elas/eles escrevem

Beber: eu bebo, você bebe, ela/ele bebe, nós bebemos, você bebem, elas/eles bebem

Comer: eu como, você come, ela/ele come, nós comemos, vocês comem, elas/eles comem

Correr: eu corro, você corre, ela/ele corre, nós corremos, vocês correm, elas/eles correm

Vencer: eu venço, você vence, ela/ele vence, nós vencemos, vocês vencem, elas/eles vencem

Crescer: eu cresço, você cresce, ela/ele cresce, nós crescemos, vocês crescem, elas/eles crescem

Entender: eu entendo, você entende, ela/ele entende, nós entendemos, vocês entendem, elas/eles entendem

Ver (irregular): eu vejo, você vê, ela/ele vê, nós vemos, vocês vêem, elas/eles vêem


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Amar: eu amo, você ama, ela/ela ama, nós amamos, vocês amam, elas/eles amam.

Trabalhar: eu trabalho, você trabalha, ela/ele trabalha, nós trabalhamos, vocês trabalham, elas/eles trabalham

Chegar: eu chego, você chega, ela/ele chega, nós chegamos, vocês chegam, elas/eles chegam

Desenhar: eu desenho, você desenha, ela/ele desenha, nós desenhamos, vocês desenham, elas/eles desenham

Carregar: eu carrego, você carrega, ela/ele carrega, nós carregamos, vocês carregam, elas/eles carregam

Encontrar: eu encontro, você encontra, ela/ele encontra, nós encontramos, você encontram, elas/eles encontram.

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Oi Alex, ainda querendo conversar em Português? Sou brasileira.

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Mariseny wrote:
¿Donde escucuchaste esa frase? Esto se puede tratar de los contenidos culturales de la comunidad hablante a la que pertenece esa lengua, ya que la cultura es un sistema de símbolos compartidos, creados por un grupo de gente para permitirle manejar su medio ambiento físico, psicológico y social. La cultura se manifiesta y se construye mediante la interacción entre las personas, es una creación del ser humano que surge de la comunicación entre las comunidades y regiones. Es por esto que debemos ser un poco flexibles, olvidarnos del etnocentrismo y aceptar parcialmente el relativismo cultural, ya que esto puede ayudarnos a que la comunicación con los miembros de otras culturas se realice con éxito y que se produzcan un número muy limitado de “malentendidos” provocados por nuestra diferente visión de la realidad, ya que no hay culturas mejores ni peores; asumir que no hay jerarquías entre culturas y que todas ellas son dignas y merecedoras del mismo respecto, es por esto que para superar este choque “choque cultural”, el docente deberá ser capaz de crear una relación de empatía dentro de la clase, tratar de entender la lengua como un elemento integrante de la cultura sin pretender que el estudiante renuncie ni a su cultura ni a su personalidad; solamente que sea capaz de superar su etnocentrismo, sin olvidar que hay que tomar en cuenta el nivel sociocultural, la edad y procedencia geográfica. Te doy un ejemplo:
Personaje: María
Sexo: Femenino
Clase social: Nivel cultural medio
Edad: 35
Procedencia Geográfica: México
Personaje: Pedro
Sexo: Masculino
Clase social: Nivel cultural bajo
Edad: 40 años
Procedencia geográfica: La Rioja.
Pedro: Muje… (Pedro alza la voz a María que está en la sala desde el cuarto)
María: ¿Qué sucede? Pedro…
Pedro: Esta bujer Ca´vez ta pior (gritando para si mismo)
Maria: ¡Calmate hombre! ¡Por Dios! ¿Qué ocurre?
Pedro: Esti pantarón t´aujereau ¡Estoy mu cansau María! ¿o eh que tiéh lah orejah tapáh?
María: ¡Eres un echador! ¡No sigas con tu misma cantaleta!
Pedro: ¡Áura cogi unauja y cocemeló!
María: ¡Ah caray¿Por un agujerito estás haciendo tanto lío?
Pedro: ¡Coño, no me pizqueh!¡Hostia! Te he dicho venticinco mir veces de que nu mi gusta las cosas esprolija.
María: Yo de gata en la sala limpiando y tú acostadote. ¿Acaso soy tu criada, Pedro?
Pedro: ¡Caro! ¡Exataménte, además de sé mi bujer! Ya te lo he repetío cien veceh
María: ¡Órale tú! ¡Ah, chingado! Eres rete machista y súper alzado.
Pedro: Ancima m' insurtas. Si serías tú pos ó no mienojaría tantismo.
¿Pueden entender lo que dicen estas persona?

It was the title of a post in the Reading Tool. I'm aware of the cultural aspects of languages (specially the oral speech), I just have never seen this phrase before, and it's a very common mistake (regarding the official written Spanish, as far as I know) among Brazilian students of Spanish.



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Posts160Likes46Joined19/9/2019LocationSão Paulo / BR
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casa - house

prédio - building

praça - square

parque - park

ruas - streets

farmácia - drugstore

padaria - bakery

cabeleireiro - hair dresser 

açougue - butcher's

mercado - market

horti-fruti - grocer's

restaurante - restaurant

posto de gasolina - gas station

hospital - hospital

aeroporto - airport

livraria - book shop

biblioteca - library

museu - museum

prefeitura - city hall

escola - school

loja - shop

banco - bank

academia - gym

ponto de ônibus - bus stop

estação de trem - train station

lavanderia - laundromat

escritório - office

fábrica - factory plant


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Does "strange" make the comparative "stranger" or "more strange"?

For example, in "this situation is stranger than the previous one" or "this situation is more strange than the previous one"?

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mesa - table

cama - bed

cadeira - chair

sofá - sofa

poltrona - armchair

armário - cabinet

guarda-roupa - wardrobe

privada/ vaso sanitário - toilet

pia - sink

tapete - rug


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cômodos - rooms

sala - living room

sala de jantar - dining room

cozinha - kitchen

quarto - bedroom

banheiro - bathroom

quintal - yard

jardim - garden

garagem - garage

porta - door

janela - window

parede - wall

telhado - roof

chão - floor



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Which sentence is correct? Or, are they both correct? "I'll wait to see if there will be an alert message"/ "I'll wait to see if there is an alert message".

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
Valeria.Fontes wrote:
Considering Spanish as one of my target languages, I thought about "venga!". I understand it as a way to show agreement, but every time I hear it I ask myself "donde vamos?"

As a native Spanish speaker, I am aware that many slang terms are super weird. I never thought too much about "¡venga!" but yes, it sure it's kinda tricky. I also think about "¡aguas!" when saying "be careful!" as it literally means "water", or about how fancy is that we have so many bad words (that I won't list because I like to keep it family-friendly).
I personally really love Spanish and it's very fun to find weird expressions in it, there are a lot!
I love Spanish too! I find the different accents amazing and local expressions as well. I was married with a Peruvian guy and it was really hard to follow a conversation when I visited his "barrio" in Lima, but I was smarter at the end of the trip. That's when they made me lose my "vale" and replace it with "venga".

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JaeHong.S wrote:
If you can type "English Grammar," there will be a lot of information regarding your question :)
For example, when you say bout "Run-On Sentence," it means that in one sentence, there are so many subjects, verbs, objectives, etc. It sometime could be lengthy, but it is better to shorten as possible to make it simple :)
Thank you, but I'm looking for improving my writing style, not exactly grammar.

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
Wow, that's so cool! I am sure that starting university knowing four languages is not something common and that it gave you many advantages. It must have also been great to be able to have job opportunities that young. I personally enjoy teaching a lot, so I am glad you got to have that kind of job so soon in your career. I hope you enjoy it as much as I do! :)
I do!!!! A class always changes my day into better!

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I also find Portuguese spoken in Portugal funny sometimes. They call a breakfast "pequeno almoço" ("small lunch"), bathroom "quarto de banho" (which is the exact translation to English: a room to bath) and many other things in a self explanatory way. In Brazilian Portuguese we tend to form nouns with suffixes, instead of this obvious names, for example, the bathroom is "banheiro" (a word derived from "banho" = bath).

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Considering Spanish as one of my target languages, I thought about "venga!". I understand it as a way to show agreement, but every time I hear it I ask myself "donde vamos?"

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Besides "raining cats and dogs" what other expressions you natives hear from speakers learning exclusively through course books?

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I started teaching my schoolmates when I was 15, which gave me some popularity, although I was very shy. It also convinced my parents I could go in an exchange program. Later, when I was taking Italian classes, the teacher recommended me to the school owner as I managed grammar very well, and that was my first job!

Being a teacher in that school, I was offered a free Spanish course! The teachers' cheering also made me take up French. So, when I entered university I was able to read in four languages.

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Os cumprimentos mais formais, sendo que a formalidade no Brasil está ligada principalmente ao mundo do trabalho e à idade, embora não sejam uma camisa de força e variem muito de acordo com escolhas pessoais, são: bom dia, boa tarde e boa noite, como vai?, tudo bem?, adeus (esse ninguém usa, me faz pensar em saídas muito dramáticas), até logo, até mais

Os mais informais: oi, olá, tudo certo?, tudo bom?, tchau, 

Há também regionalismos e gírias: dia!, tarde!, noite!, e aí?, certinho?, falô!, inté!, até!, Té!


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Can you recommend trustful writing manuals? I'm confused searching the internet because nobody seems to agree on punctuation or on what a run-on sentence is. I'm not worried about the English language itself, but about style and communication quality. An online proofreading course would also be great for me.

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I'm aware of the general rules regarding the use of the definite article, but I still get confused in certain circumstances. For example, in "(...) a number of contributions from THE French pragmatic sociology to THE sociology of collective mobilizations" I would use the second article, but not the first, and I can't justify it... it's just intuition. Am I wrong?

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JaeHong.S wrote:
I can't think of anything now, but Koreans usually can't perfectly pronounce "L" or "R". Sometimes, when my Korean friends spell out their names starting with L or R, it is definitely hard to recognize which is which.. :)
True! And it's the same for Japan and China, isn't it? I had a japanese friend who called me "ballerina" because it was hard for her to say "Valéria". I used to love it!

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
I still make this mistake in German a lot when I am not careful. I say "Ich bin gut" instead of "Mir geht es gut".
For a native Spanish speaker, the distinction between both phrases is not easily spotted. The second phrase means "I am well/ok.", but instead I end up saying "I am good" which means "I am good in bed".
I am truly sorry to all the Germans who meet me, that is NOT the way I want to start a conversation.
Jajaja! Then they say we latins are overly sensual!

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Michel wrote:
What they call "une baguette" in France - in Belgium we call it "un pain français" (a french bread).
So when I was in France I asked for "un pain français" and got the answer :
Here all our breads are French - sir.
Also I had a hard time to understand things like he actually did it yesterday since "actuellement" means currently.
In Portuguese we have "atualmente" and the same problem with understanding "actually".

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I'm revising a text and it's a non-native writing in English. She prefers to use "of" than phrasing with inversions, and it's making me uneasy. I don't know if it's preferable in a formal context (it's a doctoral thesis). For example, "the revision of this thesis", instead of "this thesis revision", and "the sections of this thesis", instead of "this thesis sections". Can anybody help me?

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Jade.Xuereb wrote:
SGP wrote:
One of the "estar" examples I read was "estoy exhausto".
But if someone's general feeling is being exhausted, rather than being very tired one time a day only because of work, would it be "soy exhausto" then?

I don't think they would use soy with anything emotional. Just with things can have a state of permenance. Perro no estoy un nativo.
As Spanish and Portuguese are almost the same regarding those two verbs (soy=ser, estoy=estar) I can assure we do use "soy/sou" with emotional things (although you can't say "soy exhausto"), but I agree with you in the question of permanence. For example, you can say either "soy feliz" or "estoy feliz", both would mean "I'm happy", but the first is a permanent state, and the second, a situational one ("I have many problems in life just like anybody else, but soy feliz!" vs "I'm traveling through the Caribbean so estoy feliz").

Everytime you are in a place, use "estar": "estoy en mi casa" (I'm at home), "estoy em Brasil" (I'm in Brazil), "estoy en la playa" (I'm at the beach), "estoy en la cocina" (I'm in the kitchen), "estoy en el paradero" (I'm at the bus stop), "estoy en la cama" (I'm in bed), etc.

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O pronome evoluiu de "vossa mercê" para "vosmecê" e, então para "você". Nas conversas atuais, usa-se também "cê" (e "vc" nas mídias escritas). O "tu" só é usado, no contexto brasileiro, em regiões específicas, apesar de ser ensinado nas escolas de todo o país como o pronome "correto" gramaticalmente. Em alguns lugares também usa-se o "tu", porém com o verbo conjugado como se fosse "você", por exemplo: "Tu vai?" (e não "tu vais?")

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Do you have any personal stories when language put you in a difficult situation? I was once in Spain with a friend and she made the typical mistake regarding Portuguese-Spanish: "Estoy embarazada!". In Portuguese, "estou embaraçada" means "I'm embarrassed", in Spanish it means "I'm pregnant".

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
An update to this topic. Not really relevant to the forum, but I just got back my German test with a 5/5 writing score. I have been working a lot on it and I am very happy it paid off. If anyone is feeling lazy, take it as a reminder that practice does work :)
Congrats! Communication is always relevant! Through this comment, for example, I've remembered an expression I was trying to use yesterday but couldn't find: pay off. "It worths it" keeps coming to my mind, but I've already learned somewhere in this forun that it's old fashioned.

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
I agree. I think it does help a lot because you have to think and construct things yourself, instead of just complying with a "passive" role, when listening for example. When I listen to someone talk I know I don't notice, but my brain is filling in the gaps of unknown words with context. You can't do that when writing. It's great and should indeed be less neglected.
That's it! The "passive role" you've mentioned is the most difficult one to overcome, because you get frustrated. If only people were patient with themselves and insisted on writing until it becomes "natural"! Because it gets better and better indeed, and what you learn from a written mistake belongs to you forever, it's consolidated. I guess I'll copy and paste this comment of yours and send to my students!

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I'm not a native speaker but I've never heard or read "Yo me gusta". I believe the correct is "Me gusta".

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leosmith wrote:
Tbh, I don't know. I'm tempted to say you just need to memorize each one, but that may just be my native-speaker grammar ignorance shining through.
Actually that's exactly how I've learned them - memorizing -, but I'm always suspicious (maybe too much!) that there's more to it. I was easy with the idea of memorizing until I read about "up" meaning "completely"... 

Is there any difference between "chop" and "chop up"?

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Can I replace "yet" with "even" in these sentences: "The boss called us, telling of yet more problems", "Inflation had risen to a yet higher level", "Each empty room made the next door yet more threatening". Tricky words those two for a Portuguese speaker!

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
Valeria.Fontes wrote:
Wow! Thank you so much! I'm going to check the dictionary entries you've sent me. Yes, it's annoying (and fun, at the same time) they don't agree! Yes, I had completely forgotten the other meaning of "tear".
I've loved your comments on Spanish! We have the verb "comover" in Portuguese as well. My choice is for "ojos vidriosos"! What a beautiful image! This one got stuck in my mind which means I've learnt new vocabulary indeed.

I am glad you liked it! "Ojos vidriosos" is an expression I see mostly in literature. It does sound beautiful, but for some reason, the picture in my head focuses more on a kind of "ugly crying". It doesn't make sense I know.
Anyway, I am glad I could help :)
There's a literature expression for this sort of crying I just love in Portuguese, which is "olhos marejados". Don't know if it's possible to translate... it has to do with the sea... or maybe with tides (sea= mar, tide= maré). 

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leosmith wrote:
Can you cite examples?
"Find out", for example. Does this "out" have any meaning that would help me infer the verb meaning? Something that would help me with "look out", "turn out", "check out", "cut out", "make out", etc.

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Once I've read the particle "up" in phrasal verbs has a meaning: "completely". I was wondering if it happens with other particles (for, out, in, etc), or is it merely a question of memorizing meaning, other than trying to infer it? Phrasal verbs are a Portuguese speaker's nightmare!

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
Valeria.Fontes wrote:
Thank you! I believe "to tear up" is the one. I've searched for "watery eyes" and found out it's a condition! Languages are really great!

I am very glad I was of help! I just need to be clear on the matter that "to tear up" is more often used with the meaning of "destroying something". After brief research, I concluded you can still use to mean "watery eyes", I would just be wary of the second meaning. I did some investigation because I wanted to make sure I was giving good advice. Here are the links I used, they are all dictionaries.
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/tear-up This one retains the meaning of "watery eyes". I am confident you can indeed use it like that because I trust the Cambridge dictionary a lot.
https://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/tear-up_1 Has both definitions with emphasis on the meaning of "destroying something"
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tear%20up Has only the "destroying something" definition.
I don't know why not all dictionaries totally agree. It is a curious phenomenon that kinda annoys me a bit. It happens to me all the time with German words. What I take out of it is that in reality, you can probably use a term with either of the two meanings or even more loosely, and can still be correct and understood. The more time it passes I realize languages are really messy and that linguists are sure having tons of fun getting a grasp of them.

Valeria.Fontes wrote:
Now I'm curious: how would you say that in Spanish? In a situation you get touched by something specially beautiful and tear up?

This is a very interesting question and also fun to answer.
That something touched you is meant with the verb "conmover" which has the same meaning as "to get moved by". "Estoy muy conmovido" means "I am very moved." It's just basically when something had a very strong emotional impact on you, which can be meant in many ways, for example, when someone says something very beautiful to some other person, presencing a very outstanding act of kindness, but also with taking notice of a catastrophic event, or something that caused great surprise.
We don't have something that means both things with a word, but "conmovido" is indeed frequently used with "llorar", "ojos llenos de lágrimas", "sollozar", "ojos vidriosos", "ojos llorosos" etc, especially in literature. I think those last to expressions are the closest in meaning with what you meant. "Lo conmovió mucho y sus ojos se pusieron vidriosos" literally means "He was very moved and his eyes became glassy". "Lo conmovió y empezó a sollozar" means "He was very moved and began to weep/sob silently". "Ojos llorosos" literally means "crying eyes" (with "crying" being used as an adjective) or "eyes full of tears".
I know I said a lot but I just really like exploring how my own language compares to others. There may even be a better expression that I can't think of right now. Anyways, it is very interesting. Thanks for asking :blush:
Wow! Thank you so much! I'm going to check the dictionary entries you've sent me. Yes, it's annoying (and fun, at the same time) they don't agree! Yes, I had completely forgotten the other meaning of "tear". 

I've loved your comments on Spanish! We have the verb "comover" in Portuguese as well. My choice is for "ojos vidriosos"! What a beautiful image! This one got stuck in my mind which means I've learnt new vocabulary indeed.

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Michel wrote:
Why don't you use "eyes became full of tears" or "tears came/were coming to his/her eyes" ?
I think we need more context to help. Do you want to express the action of tears coming or the feeling that caused it ?
I wanted to express the action of tears coming when you face a specially touchy situation, because of beauty in the case I was describing in my text. I didn't use "my eyes became full of tears" because I thought it would be forcing Portuguese into English, and that's my big problem as a fluent but not bilingual speaker: use of English. Thank you. 

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
What comes to mind are the verbs "to sob", "to tear up" and "to weep". Something like "she started to tear up" or "she started to weep silently". That's honestly the closer I can get to, I am not a native speaker and maybe you already pondered on those words, but trying to help doesn't hurt :).
I also based my suggestions on googling the words, maybe using the definitions could also help:
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/weep
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/tearing
Also, it is interesting, we don't have such expression in Spanish either!
Thank you! I believe "to tear up" is the one. I've searched for "watery eyes" and found out it's a condition! Languages are really great! Now I'm curious: how would you say that in Spanish? In a situation you get touched by something specially beautiful and tear up?

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I was writing an essay and had to look up the verb to cry, finding weep, tear, mourn, grieve, whine, wail, blubber, but none of them approached what I meant. We have this expression in Portuguese, "olhos se encheram de lágrimas" which is something like "eyes became full of tears", it means, when you just start crying quietly. Is there any similar expression in English?

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
Valeria.Fontes wrote:
Students normally restart classes after Carnival, so I have 1 and a half months to work on my weaknesses as a teacher. I'm thinking about taking college time texts from their files, so I can remember language problematizations, as well as teaching issues. I want to give special attention to the didatics of listening exercises, because I feel that's the biggest problem for Brazilian students.
I also need to refresh my Italian because I intend to travel in April, so I'll start reading about the region I'm visiting and watching videos on Italian culture. It's hard for me because when I have to speak Italian my mind switches to Spanish mode!

I bet you are a great teacher, judging for your involvement with the class. I am glad!
Also, a funny thing I experienced with an Italian teacher: I took Italian lessons for a semester in a US high school. Our teacher was very kind, Portuguese was his first language and spoke other three: Spanish, Italian, and English. When he was teaching us the numbers in Italian he started writing them in Spanish, and I remember thinking "either he got confused or numbers in Italian will be actually pretty easy for me". When he realized we laughed it off. So I think confusing Italian and Spanish is actually a pretty common problem! :laughing:
I love teaching! Some days I'm lazy and wishing to stay home, but I always get full of energy after a class.

Yes, it's a pretty common problem confusing both languages. I remember insisting on saying to my Italian teacher "apre la ventana", which got him mad!

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Students normally restart classes after Carnival, so I have 1 and a half months to work on my weaknesses as a teacher. I'm thinking about taking college time texts from their files, so I can remember language problematizations, as well as teaching issues. I want to give special attention to the didatics of listening exercises, because I feel that's the biggest problem for Brazilian students.

I also need to refresh my Italian because I intend to travel in April, so I'll start reading about the region I'm visiting and watching videos on Italian culture. It's hard for me because when I have to speak Italian my mind switches to Spanish mode!

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I have a question about verb tense in the following passage: "Partially digested food starts to arrive in the small intestine as semi-liquid chyme, one hour after it is eaten. After two hours the stomach HAS EMPTIED." Could I use a verb in the simple presente instead of perfect? For example, "the stomach IS empty", or "the stomach EMPTIES".

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Kosta.Cirkovic wrote:
Thanks for the comments, guys!
Yeah, I guess that history and politics are the biggest players in this game, and that linguistics comes second sometimes.
Also, Valeria, if you don't mind me asking a somewhat related question: how different is Brazilian Portuguese from Portuguese spoken in Portugal? I'm thinking of taking up Portuguese at uni since I love so much Brazilian music and films. The lector is from Portugal though, and I'd be bummed if I couldn't understand my favourite movies even after studying the language, if the dialects are too different haha.
I'm amazed by your interest in Brazilian music and films! Brazilian and Portuguese are not so different, just some uses and vocabulary which are not impossible to overcome, the main problem is pronunciation, we can understand one another but I guess it wouldn't be that easy for a foreigner to flow between the two languages... anyway, don't give up! It's just a matter of looking for lyrics and watching movies with subtitles until you adapt. I can help you with song translation if you wish!

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I was a kid and tried singing along American songs (Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Madonna...), so my parents thought it would be good for their ears! As a teen, the dream of traveling around the world made me study hard, as well as teaching my schoolmates.

Besides that, learning English was (and still is) a must have for middle/ top social classes in Brazil, it's an asset, it gives you social status, even though people make it up to be trivial. Seriously, in my experience as a teacher it becomes palpable: high class students learn smoothly, lower class ones frequently have difficulties, specially with pronunciation (and tend to give up).

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Here a Portuguese version of the Xmas song, with lyrics. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N-lMPtpHHa4 

Is there a version in your language?

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"The company's mission or The mission of the company or The company mission?" is just an example of choosing among the genitive ('s), a phrase, or an adjective expression (sorry, I don't know how to call this last one). I've read somewhere that English is currently tending to transform nouns into "adjectives" ("company" would work as an adjective in my example, not a name anymore, but a quality). Is it really a trend? Is there any rule for that trend?

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Language studies are not that "neutral" at all! Your description of "the Balcans" was a great example, as is my own country, and other ex-colonies linguistic situations. History - political, economic, cultural, social - is the clue for all those (artificial) boundaries, and it's fascinating to see languages under these lenses! As for dialects in Spain, you have to check the historical moment of the Nation-State birth, when Castille emerged as political power center, imposing Castillan as "national language" (the same for other European countries). Some Spaniards get very upset when you call the language "Spanish" because of that process, which diminished the status of languages into "dialect"... We cannot forget that, together with language, goes cultural influence and even supremacy.

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JaeHong.S wrote:
May: Mostly used as permission. Ex) May I borrow your pen? Yes, You may.
Might: When you are 50% unsure if you do something or not. Ex) I might go to a concert tonight. << 50% going to a concert or 50% not going to a concert
Thanks for your comment! In your second example you could also say "I may go to a concert tonight". My question regarded that kind of situation. In the first, you could choose to use "Can I borrow your pen?" too.

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pretend - fingir

intend - pretender

prejudice - preconceito

college - faculdade

library - biblioteca

support - apoiar

devolve - transferir

anthen - hino

hymn - cântico

parents - pais

costume - fantasia

eventually - finalmente, no final

fabric - tecido

lecture - palestra

novel - romance

application - inscrição

attend - participar, assistir

sensible - sensato

sensitive - sensível

realize - perceber

actually - atualmente

enroll - matricular-se, inscrever-se

push - empurrar

convict - condenado



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Brazilian modernist literature poses a lot of difficulties to foreign readers (and translators) because of the experimental use of language and its turning to idiosyncrasies. If you're studying that language and would like to challenge yourself try reading "Grande Sertão Veredas" (even the title is almost impossible to translate). Another very good one is "Vidas Secas" (something like "Dry lives"). The first by Guimarães Rosa, the latter by Graciliano Ramos.

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I've just came up with a very nice page: thoughtco.com

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I love neologisms, but they are slightly more restricted in my mother tongue than in English, at least I have this impression, because I read a lot, specially magazines and newspapers, and I always get surprised with new usage of words. In Brazil, this creations are restricted to informal speech and literature, of course,

I was researching about it and found an interesting text: "Part of the strength and vitality of English is its readiness to welcome new words and expressions and to accept new meanings for old words. (...) Before grabbing the latest usage, ask yourself a few questions. Is it likely to pass the test of time? If not, are you using it to show just how cool you are? Has it already become a clichê? Does it do a job no other word or expression does just as well? Does it rob the language of a useful or well-liked meaning? Is it being adapted to make the writers' prose sharper, crisper, more euphonious, easier to understand - in other words, better?"

I believe this is the moment a foreign speaker feels even foreigner (yeah, I've just tried creating one, sorry!) Harder than learning a language is keeping up with it! But I like it!

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O funk brasileiro têm feito muito sucesso nos últimos anos e acabou se tornando uma nova manifestação cultural a representar o país internacionalmente, atraindo o interesse de estrangeiros. Entretanto, as letras são de muito difícil compreensão, até mesmo para brasileiros, você precisa estar ligado ao movimento cultural para compreender 100%. Os assuntos são tratados com duplo sentido, na maioria das vezes, além das gírias que se renovam vertiginosamente. Você tem curiosidade sobre alguma letra?

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Is there any meaning difference between "may" and "might"? For example, "I may go to the beach for the holidays" or "I might go to the beach for the holidays"? I've learnt that I should use them to talk about probability, but what's the actual use?

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jpormento wrote:
I think that's how they're meant to be listened to. They sing the lyrics of a jazz song without really enunciating the words properly to focus on the tone of the music. So pronunciation wise, we really don't understand it. Or at least it's very hard to understand. With regards to music though, they're good.
Thanks for your comment, but actually my difficulties regard the meaning, not the pronunciation. I think that using traditional dictionaries is not enough.

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https://houaiss.uol.com

https://dicionario.priberam.org/

Portuguese dic.

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Kosta.Cirkovic wrote:
As a native Serbian speaker, I can say that it was definitely much easier learning Russian (another Slavic language) than Danish (a Germanic language). My Russian is still decent, even though I haven't been actively studying it for nearly four years, because it just works similarly to Serbian and it's easy to switch my brain into "Russian mode" from "Serbian mode" quickly. Much easier than going to "Danish mode", at least.
The case system in Russian is nearly exactly the same as in Serbian, the alphabet is the same, a lot of the vocabulary is either exactly the same words or words with the same Slavic roots. The way Russian people phrase things is also similar to our way of speaking, and it's quite easy. to understand a new word from context if a sentence is built in the same way as in my native language.
A lot of Slavic languages are pretty similar, and we can understand other South Slavic languages decently (some are even completely mutually intelligible), and sometimes get by with Western or Eastern Slavic speakers using words from our language as well.
Language families are amazing! Although I enjoy both processes: the weirdness of similarities and the complete darkness of a distant language.

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É difícil memorizar as regras até para nós falantes de Português. Enquanto o Inglês tem somente "why" e "because", temos: por que, por quê, porque e porquê.

Por que: faz a pergunta e nunca vem no final da frase.

Por quê: faz a pergunta e vem no final.

Porque: responde a pergunta.

Porquê: sempre precedido de um artigo (o porquê), um pronome, um adjetivo ou um numeral.


Por que é tão difícil essa língua?!


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Scusa mio Italiano terribile! Peró c'é qualcuno che puó raccomandare degli strumenti per impare un pò de vocabolario del Siciliano? Lo stesso su pronuncia?

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JaeHong.S wrote:
Yes, I almost forgot Portuguese!
Interesting to hear about what you said!
I say it would be so amazing if a single person speaks Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and French!
Thanks for your opinion :)
Actually I can understand those languages much better than speaking, but only because I've been curious about foreign languages since very early in life. It's not like every speaker of those languages are effortlessly aware of them. 

Now I ask you: is it the same between Korean and other eastern languages?

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JaeHong.S wrote:
In America, when you use the word, "Doubt," for example,
A: "I think Earth is the shape of square."
B: "I doubt it."
And plus, I think they don't use a sentence like "I have a doubt." Most likely it is supposed to be "I have a question." :)
I don't doubt it at all! The Earth is definitely round, haha!

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JaeHong.S wrote:
I say it's grammatically different.
I like dancing = I like dancing = (verb) + ing.
I like to dance = I like to dance = to (verb).
The meaning of the sentence is most likely the same.
It would be slightly different depends on the situations you're in :)
Thanks! You say "slightly different", and that's exactly my point. 

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Yes, it's really easier, specially between Portuguese and Spanish (we even share something called "portuñol" in Latin America). Nevertheless, I've experienced some trouble with vocabulary when studying those three languages: many times you just can't remember if a word is Italian or Spanish (French is more distant in terms of pronunciation and spelling). There are shared similarities which cause both comprehension and confusion. For example, the expression "good morning": Bom dia (Portuguese), Buenos dias (Spanish), Buon giorno (Italian), Bom jour (French), but the word for "window", janela (Portuguese), ventana (Spanish), finestra (Italian) and fenètre (French).

Once, I've met two Romenian guys who could understand what I was talking with another Brazilian, but we could not make any idea of what they were chatting about.

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ZairaI.Uranga wrote:
I can't believe I have been using "doubt" all this time! :laughing: It must be a really common problem for native Spanish speakers because we are used to saying "I have a doubt" in Spanish when we raise our hand in class. Good to know!
Actually I've raised this doubt - oops, question - in "other than English" forum, because I was suspicious Spanish speakers have the same translation issue.

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Kosta.Cirkovic wrote:
It does sound exactly the same with the verb "like". Sometimes, though, you can use either one or the other, for example, if you were to use "enjoy", you would only be able to say "I enjoy dancing", and not "I enjoy to dance".
To be frank, I didn't really know what makes the difference in these cases so I just googled it, and the first result says this:
Gerunds are often used when actions are real, fixed, or completed. "I enjoy cooking."
Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future: "He wants to swim."

Honestly, I think the easiest way is just to learn by heart which verbs use the -ing form and which ones use the infinitive. It starts coming naturally after a while.
Thanks for your comment! Once I've read the the use of the gerund is preferable with 'like', unless you add an object to the verb, for example "I like to dance the Flamenco".

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Discute-se academicamente se são duas línguas ou não. Apesar disso, o senso comum continua insistindo no não, totalmente alheio à discussão técnico-política.

Obviamente, os portugueses defendem aquela mesma posição contrária, então o "português brasileiro" seria uma deformação, uma língua mal falada.

Tenho uma história pessoal a respeito que aconteceu num Burguer King em Copacabana: a conversa com a senhora portuguesa corria amigável, até eu dizer alguma coisa sobre uma canadense e ela me corrigir "Canadense não, canadiana, o correto é canadiana". Teve início uma discussão acalorada, eu apresentando argumentos estruturais, ela apegando-se ao léxico e ao sotaque. Já muito irritada, perguntei: "então nossa língua é mera deformação da sua?" Ela silenciou e apenas sorriu. 

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What's the difference between "I like dancing" and "I like to dance"? 

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Does anybody know any source which could help me understand jazz lyrics? Every time I try there's at least a verse I don't really get the meaning, no matter how much I google it or read dictionaries. I can't think of any example right now, but what I meant is if there's any specific dictionary.

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leosmith wrote:
Yes: "I have a question".
Thanks! This one is very tricky for Portuguese speakers, my students say it a lot and are normally not convinced when I tell them not to use "doubt" in this situation, because it would be a natural translation from our mother tongue.

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A maior dificuldade para estrangeiros que desejam aprender português é lidar com os gêneros. Há substantivos considerados femininos e substantivos considerados masculinos, e os adjetivos acompanham essa definição, por exemplo: "menina bonitA", "menino bonitO", "piscina limpA", "quarto limpO". A chave é atentar para as terminações "a" e "o".

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Once I was in a class and raised my hand saying "I have a doubt". The teacher laughed and replied "now you'll talk about God!". I learned I should have said "I have a question". It was British context. Is it the same for American English?

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I was told by a native speaker that Past Perfect is not used in everyday life conversations. Is it so?

For example: "I went to Europe last year, but I had been there before". This person told me a native would prefer to say "I went to Europe last year, but I was there before". 

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It made me think about Noam Chomsky and his "universal grammar". When you learn other languages you start recognizing common patterns among them, it means you get more aware about human language itself.

Besides that, there are differences which can only be explained through grammar comparison, so it would make you more aware of your mother tongue when you are forced to look at it in a more analytical way.

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Is it mandatory to use quantifiers in sentences like these:

"Do you have any cofee?", "Can I have some wine?", "I don't have any cats", "Can you speak any other language?". I mean, would it be too weird if I left them out?

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Kosta.Cirkovic wrote:
I believe there is no agreed upon answer, but I would guess that west coast/Hollywood is the most global.
Yeah, I think so as well. There kind of is a General American or Standard American accent, or "broadcast English/news reader English" as some people call it, which is mostly based on the West Coast and Midlands accents. As I've read, the unwritten rule in American TV is that you're not really supposed to sound like you're from anywhere (aka have a strong regional accent).
The Hollywood accent is probably dominant due to the overwhelming popularity of Hollywood movies, shows made and set in California and the general influence of California on the rest of the US and the world.
Yes, exactly the same in Brazil with Portuguese.

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