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Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 8 Like or Dislike; Gusto, Ayaw, Mahilig

Vocabulary
gusto
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to like, want
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ayaw
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to dislike, not want
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ibig
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to like, want (less colloquial)
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nais
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to like, want (rare)
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mahilig
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to like
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batá
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kid
Show
pera
Show
money
Show
Grammar
This lesson will show you how to say that you like, want, dislike or don’t want a noun. How to do this with verbs will be covered in a future lesson.
Gusto means to want or like. You can use it to say you want some noun in general or specific.
Ex: I want pizza.
Show
= Gusto ko ng pizza. (general)
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Ex: I want the pizza.
Show
= Gusto ko ang pizza. (specific)
Show
Notice that in these simple statements of fact, ng is used for general and ang for specific.
You can also use it to say you like some noun in specific
Ex: I like Jane.
Show
= Gusto ko si Jane.
Show
But don’t use it to say you like something in general because that can be confusing. For example, a native speaker will usually assume Gusto ko ng pizza means you want pizza, not you like pizza.
Mahilig means to like or be fond of something in general.
Ex: I like pizza.
Show
= Mahilig ako sa pizza. (general)
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Ayaw means to not want or dislike, depending on the context.
Ex: Ayaw ko ng pizza.
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= I don’t want pizza (general) or I don’t like pizza (general), depending on the context.
Show
Ex: Ayaw ko ang pizza.
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= I don’t want the pizza (specific) or I don’t like the pizza (specific), depending on the context.
Show
Ibig and nais
Ibig and nais are generally interchangeable with gusto, but less common. Ibig is used as a root to form some common verbs and nouns, but sounds bookish or formal when functioning as gusto in conversation. Nais is even more rare. We won’t use these in sample sentences.
Additional Notes
In the examples above, the one who wants/likes/doesn’t want/dislikes is called the experiencer. The person/thing that’s being wanted/liked/not wanted/disliked is called the object.
For gusto/ayaw the sentence form is <gusto/ayaw, experiencer, object>. Experiencer takes ng-form. Object takes ng-form for something in general and ang-form for something specific.
For mahilig the sentence form is <mahilig, experiencer, object>. Experiencer takes ang-form. Object takes sa-form and the meaning is always something in general.
All 3 of these words are enclitic magnates, so enclitic particles and personal pronouns will immediately follow them. That means if the object is a pronoun and the experiencer isn’t, the sentence order is <… object, experiencer>
Pronouns ka, ko and mo come before particles po and ba. All other pronouns come after.
That’s not all there is. There are alternate structures, but these are the most common and using them should allow you to glean the meaning of the others in the wild.
Sample Sentences
Q1
Hugo wants the house.
Gusto ni Hugo ang bahay.
Q2
Tony dislikes her.
Ayaw siya ni Tony.
Q3
Does Frank like children?
Mahilig ba si Frank sa mga bata?
Q4
We hate cars.
Ayaw namin ng mga kotse.
Q5
Does Freddy like her? (po)
Gusto po ba siya ni Freddy?
Q6
Do you like adobo? (po)
Mahilig po ba kayo sa adobo?
Q7
The teacher dislikes the students.
Ayaw ng guro ang mga estudyante.
Q8
Does Joe want money?
Gusto ba ni Joe ng pera?
Q9
Beth hates hospitals. (po)
Ayaw po ni Beth ng mga ospital.
Q10
Mary likes beautiful buildings.
Mahilig si Mary sa mga magandang gusali.

Edited

Corrections

Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 8 Like or Dislike; Gusto, Ayaw, Mahilig
Vocabulary
gusto
Show
to like, want
Show
ayaw
Show
to dislike, not want
Show
ibig
Show
to like, want (less colloquial)
Show
nais
Show
to like, want (rare)
Show
mahilig
Show
to like
Show
batá
Show
kid
Show
pera
Show
money
Show
Grammar
This lesson will show you how to say that you like, want, dislike or don’t want a noun. How to do this with verbs will be covered in a future lesson.
Gusto means to want or
to like. You can use it to say you want some noun in general generally or specific specifically .
Ex: I want pizza.
Show
= Gusto ko ng pizza. (general)
Show
Ex: I want the pizza.
Show
= Gusto ko ang pizza. (specific)
Show
Notice that in these simple statements of fact, ng is used for general and ang for specific.
You can also use it to say you like some noun in specific
:
Ex: I like Jane.
Show
= Gusto ko si Jane.
Show
But don’t use it to say you like something in general because that can be confusing. For example, a native speaker will usually assume Gusto ko ng pizza means you want pizza, not you like pizza.
Mahilig means to like or be fond of something in general.
Ex: I like pizza.
Show
= Mahilig ako sa pizza. (general)
Show
Ayaw means to not want or
to dislike, depending on the context.
Ex: Ayaw ko ng pizza.
Show
= I don’t want pizza (general) or I don’t like pizza (general), depending on the context.
Show
Ex: Ayaw ko ang pizza.
Show
= I don’t want the pizza (specific) or I don’t like the pizza (specific), depending on the context.
Show
Ibig and nais
Ibig and nais are generally interchangeable with gusto, but less common. Ibig is used as a root to form some common verbs and nouns, but sounds bookish or formal when functioning as gusto in conversation. Nais is even more rare. We won’t use these in sample sentences.
Additional Notes
In the examples above, the one who wants/likes/doesn’t want/dislikes is called the experiencer. The person/thing that’s being wanted/liked/not wanted/disliked is called the object.
For gusto/ayaw
, the sentence form is <gusto/ayaw, experiencer, object>. Experiencer takes ng-form. Object takes ng-form for something in general and ang-form for something specific.
For mahilig
, the sentence form is <mahilig, experiencer, object>. Experiencer takes ang-form. Object takes sa-form and the meaning is always something in general. [As a beginner, knowing which noun classes to use (i.e., ang/ng/sa) for different functions governed by different verbs is something I still don't really understand at this point?]
All 3 of these words are enclitic magnates, so enclitic particles and personal pronouns will immediately follow them. That means if the object is a pronoun and the experiencer isn’t, the sentence order is <… object, experiencer>
Pronouns ka, ko and mo come before particles po and ba. All other pronouns come after
po and ba .
That’s not all there is. There are alternate structures, but these are the most common
, and using them should allow you to glean the meaning of the others in the wild.
Sample Sentences
Q1
Hugo wants the house.
Gusto ni Hugo ang bahay.
Q2
Tony dislikes her.
Ayaw siya ni Tony.
Q3
Does Frank like children?
Mahilig ba si Frank sa mga bata?
Q4
We hate cars.
Ayaw namin ng mga kotse.
Q5
Does Freddy like her? (po)
Gusto po ba siya ni Freddy?
Q6
Do you like adobo? (po)
Mahilig po ba kayo sa adobo?
Q7
The teacher dislikes the students.
Ayaw ng guro ang mga estudyante.
Q8
Does Joe want money?
Gusto ba ni Joe ng pera?
Q9
Beth hates hospitals. (po)
Ayaw po ni Beth ng mga ospital.
Q10
Mary likes beautiful buildings.
Mahilig si Mary sa mga magandang gusali.
Posted

Comment(s)

ang/ng/sa is one of the biggest hurdles in learning Tagalog. Although some natives and certain resources tried to convince me otherwise, unfortunately there are no good rules of thumb. It was very confusing to me until I learned which form to use for each structure. This is generally what I do in the lessons - provide 10 practice sentences for each grammar point, with the exact rules in the bullet points, and further explanation/vocab in the body of the lesson. I went with the reverse order because that's the one I see most often in online resources.
Posted 
I'm starting to grasp the whole [ang/ng/sa] thing a bit better as I progress through the lessons, and your Appendix on "focus" was particularly useful in helping some things click into place.
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