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Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 47 After and Then with pagka, tapos and pagkatapos

Vocabulary
pagka
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adverb prefix that adds the nuance after
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tapos
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then; completed
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tapos na
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finished
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pagkatapos
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after
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pagkahapunan
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after eating dinner
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pagkakain
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after eating
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pagkabasa
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after reading
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pagkaturó
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after teaching
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Grammar
There’s a strong relationship between these three items, so I grouped them together in this lesson.
pagka
You might remember that in a previous lesson pagka can be used to make gerunds for some verbs. It turns out that it can also be used to create an adverb of time with the nuance after.
Ex: Pagkahapunan namin, bumalik kami sa aming bahay.
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= After we dined, we returned to our house.
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Ex: Bumalik kami sa aming bahay pagkahapunan namin.
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= We returned to our house after we dined.
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The actor associated with the pagka-adverb (namin above) always takes ng-form.
tapos
When used in the middle or beginning of a sentence, tapos means then.
Ex: Nag-aral siya, tapos kumain sa SM.
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= She studied, then ate at SM.
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Ex: Tapos, nagtaksi ako papunta sa Maynila.
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= Then I took a taxi to Manila.
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Ex: Tapos?
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= And then? So...?
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Tapos na roughly means finished.
Ex: Tapos na tayo.
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= We’re finished.
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Ex: Tapos na siyang mag-aral.
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= She finished studying.
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pagkatapos
Pagkatapos is just the pagka prefix used with the tapos root.
pagka + tapos = pagkatapos = after + completed = after
Ex: Pagkatapos mag-aral, kakain siya sa SM.
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= After she studies, she’ll eat at SM.
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Ex: Kakain siya sa SM pagkatapos mag-aral.
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= She’ll eat at SM after she studies.
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Additional Notes
Formation of pagka adverbs <pagka+root>
The actor associated with pagka-adverbs takes ng-form
Although these are sometimes interchangeable, I recommend using pagka- and pagkatapos for after, and tapos for then or finished to avoid errors.
If there is a verb phrase involved, Tapos na word order is <tapos na, (linker), phrase>. If there is an enclitic, use the linker.
Sample Sentences
(place adverbs in front)
Q1
After you eat chicken, take medicine. (pagka-)
Pagkakain mo ng manok, uminom ka ng gamot.
Q2
You will walk, then sleep.
Lalakad ka, tapos matutulog.
Q3
After Mario works he will clean house. (pagkatapos)
Pagkatapos magtrabaho ni Mario, maglilinis siya ng bahay.
Q4
After I read a book I returned home. (pagka-)
Pagkabasa ko ng libro, bumalik ako sa bahay.
Q5
Raquel finished drinking her water.
Tapos na uminom si Raquel ng tubig niya.
Q6
After she teaches, the teacher leaves. (pagka-)
Pagkaturo niya, umalis ang guro.
Q7
They finished climbing the mountain.
Tapos na silang umakyat ng bundok.
Q8
After studying let's return. (pagkatapos)
Pagkatapos nating mag-aral, bumalik tayo.
Q9
Maria ate pizza then she ate cake.
Kumain si Maria ng pizza, tapos kumain siya ng cake.
Q10
After she taught me I left. (pagkatapos)
Pagkatapos niya akong tinuruan, umalis ako.

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