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Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 4 Possessive Clauses

Vocabulary
If you aren’t familiar with ng or sa-forms, or need a refresher, please go to Appendix A and make a first pass at learning them before attempting this lesson.
bahay
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house
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aso
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dog
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pusá
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cat
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kapatid
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sibling
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asawa
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spouse
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kaibigan
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friend
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kasintahan
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girlfriend/boyfriend
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mangga
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mango
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Grammar
Possessive Clauses using ng-form
These are of the form “noun of noun”; ng means something like of in this construction.
Ex: aso ko
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= my dog (dog of me)
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Ex: kotse ng lalaki
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= man’s car (car of man)
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Ex: pusa ni Maria
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= Maria’s cat (cat of Maria)
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Ex: mga bahay nina Jeff at Brian
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= Jeff and Brian’s houses (houses of Jeff and Brian)
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Keep in mind that the result is a noun clause and can be used anywhere a noun is used.
Alternate Possessive Clauses using sa-form
There is alternate way of forming possessive clauses when the possessor is a personal pronoun:
Ex: aking aso
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= my dog
Show
Ex: kanilang kotse
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= their car
Show
In this book we’ll only use the alternate form to avoid duplicating pronouns within sentences, which is generally what is done in colloquial speech.
Sounds bad: Asawa niya ang kaibigan niya.
Show
= His wife is his friend.
Show
The repetition of niya sounds bad to native speakers.
Sounds better: Asawa niya ang kaniyang kaibigan.
Show
= His wife is his friend.
Show
Less common: Kaniyang asawa ang kaibigan niya.
Show
= His wife is his friend.
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Note that it’s more common the use the ng-form possessive clause first, so we’ll do that from here on.
Double Possesive Clauses
We now know how to say “my friend” and “friend’s wife”, but how do we say “my friend’s wife”? Remembering that these are of the form “noun of noun”, we first rephrase this as “wife of my friend”.
(wife) of (my friend)
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= (asawa) ng (kaibigan ko) = asawa ng kaibigan ko
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How about “my friend’s wife’s dog”?
(dog) of (wife) of (my friend)
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= aso ng asawa ng kaibigan ko
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Note Summary for Possessive Clauses
word order for possessive clauses using ng-form is <possession, possessor>, and the second noun clause takes the ng form
word order for possessive clauses using sa-form is <pronoun, linker, possession>, and the pronoun takes the sa form without the sa
Sample Sentences
Q1
His house.
Bahay niya.
Q2
My teacher is my friend.
Guro ko ang aking kaibigan.
Q3
Mike and Mario’s dog.
Aso nina Mike at Mario.
Q4
Not their car, their brother's car.
Hindi ang kotse nila, ang kotse ng kanilang kapatid.
Q5
My sister’s cat.
Pusa ng kapatid ko.
Q6
My cat is my dog's friend.
Pusa ko ang kaibigan ng aking aso.
Q7
My wife is smart.
Matalino ang asawa ko.
Q8
Our car is our teacher's house.
Kotse namin ang bahay ng aming guro.
Q9
Your girlfriend is beautiful.
Maganda ang kasintahan mo.
Q10
Joe's mango.
Mangga ni Joe.

Edited

Corrections

Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 4 Possessive Clauses
Vocabulary
If you aren’t familiar with ng or sa-forms, or need a refresher, please go to Appendix A
[link] and make a first pass at learning them before attempting this lesson.
bahay
Show
house
Show
aso
Show
dog
Show
pusá
Show
cat
Show
kapatid
Show
sibling
Show
asawa
Show
spouse
Show
kaibigan
Show
friend
Show
kasintahan
Show
girlfriend/boyfriend
Show
mangga
Show
mango
Show
Grammar
Possessive Clauses using ng-form
These are of the form “noun of noun”; ng means something like of in this construction.
Ex: aso ko
[probably a silly newbie question, but I wasn't quite sure why "my" was "ko" and not "ako" as shown in Appendix A - is it because "aso" ends in a vowel?]
Show
= my dog (dog of me)
Show
Ex: kotse ng lalaki
Show
= man’s car (car of man)
Show
Ex: pusa ni Maria
Show
= Maria’s cat (cat of Maria)
Show
Ex: mga bahay nina Jeff at Brian
Show
= Jeff and Brian’s houses (houses of Jeff and Brian)
Show
Keep in mind that the result is a noun clause and can be used anywhere a noun is used.
Alternate Possessive Clauses using sa-form
There is
an alternate way of forming possessive clauses when the possessor is a personal pronoun:
Ex: aking aso
Show
= my dog
Show
Ex: kanilang kotse
Show
= their car
Show
In this book we’ll only use the alternate form to avoid duplicating pronouns within sentences, which is generally what is done in colloquial speech.
Sounds bad: Asawa niya ang kaibigan niya.
Show
= His wife is his friend.
Show
The repetition of niya sounds bad to native speakers.
Sounds better: Asawa niya ang kaniyang kaibigan.
Show
= His wife is his friend.
Show
Less common: Kaniyang asawa ang kaibigan niya.
Show
= His wife is his friend.
Show
Note that it’s more common
the to use the ng-form possessive clause first, so we’ll do that from here on.
Double Possesive Clauses
We now know how to say “my friend” and “friend’s wife”, but how do we say “my friend’s wife”? Remembering that these are of the form “noun of noun”, we first rephrase this as “wife of my friend”.
(wife) of (my friend)
Show
= (asawa) ng (kaibigan ko) = asawa ng kaibigan ko
Show
How about “my friend’s wife’s dog”?
(dog) of (wife) of (my friend)
Show
= aso ng asawa ng kaibigan ko
Show
Note Summary for Possessive Clauses
word order for possessive clauses using ng-form is <possession, possessor>, and the second noun clause takes the ng form
word order for possessive clauses using sa-form is <pronoun, linker, possession>, and the pronoun takes the sa form without the sa
Sample Sentences
Q1
His house.
Bahay niya.
Q2
My teacher is my friend.
Guro ko ang aking kaibigan.
Q3
Mike and Mario’s dog.
Aso nina Mike at Mario.
Q4
Not their car, their brother's car.
Hindi
[a quick note or link to how negation generally works in Tagalog would probably be good here?] ang kotse nila, ang kotse ng kanilang kapatid.
Q5
My sister’s cat.
Pusa ng kapatid ko.
Q6
My cat is my dog's friend.
Pusa ko ang kaibigan ng aking aso.
Q7
My wife is smart.
Matalino ang asawa ko.
Q8
Our car is our teacher's house.
Kotse namin ang bahay ng aming guro.
Q9
Your girlfriend is beautiful.
Maganda ang kasintahan mo.
Q10
Joe's mango.
Mangga ni Joe.
Posted

Comment(s)

I was initially unsure when to add suffixes to personal pronouns to form possessive adjectives. I think a table of personal adjectives (e.g., my, your, his/her, etc., where applicable) in Appendix A would help beginners like me work it out earlier.
Posted 
Ko is the ng-form of I, the header says ng-form clauses, and the rule is stated in the note summary. I don't suggest people think of it as "my" because sometimes that fails. Maybe the organization doesn't feel right yet but later will feel better? This course is basically designed to fit into my way of learning a language, meaning I would take it after taking an audio course like Pimsleur or Filipinopod101. Otherwise I could see needing to add more explanation. For example, introduce ko as my, but later say it's actually just the ng-form of I. I admit I haven't tried very hard to make the beginning easy. I'm probably going to get some reviews that say "this course isn't for beginners". Your comments have made me think hard - thanks!
Posted 
Also - the "hindi" sentence shouldn't be in this lesson (not covered yet). Good catch!
Posted 
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