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Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 3 Adjectives

Vocabulary
buhay
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living
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maalat
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salty
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maganda
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beautiful
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matalino
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intelligent
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berde
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green
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kotse
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car
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mayaman
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rich
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pagkain
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food
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lalaki
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boy; man
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mura
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cheap
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galit
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angry
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gamit
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used
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mainit
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hot
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Grammar
Adjectives are plentiful in Tagalog, and they can be single words or phrases. We will cover certain adjective phrases in later lessons.
Single word adjectives are either affixed or unaffixed. Please read Appendix B at this point if you aren’t familiar with Tagalog roots and affixes. Most affixed adjectives are ma-adjectives, so in this lesson we will cover unaffixed and ma-adjectives.
Unaffixed Adjectives
Unaffixed adjectives are merely roots with the appropriate stress and glottal stops. Note that they are pronounced differently from unaffixed nouns.
Ex: buhay
Show
= living (adj)
Show
Ex: buhay
Show
= life (noun)
Show
Ma-adjectives
To form these just add the affix ma to the root.
Ex: ma + alat(saltiness) = maalat (salty)
Ex: ma + ganda(beauty) = maganda (beautiful)
Ex: ma + talino(intelligence) = matalino (intelligent)
Usage
Adjectives have three main functions in Tagalog: 1) to make a statement about a subject 2) to modify a noun and 3) to be used as a noun. We’ll cover 3) in a later lesson.
Making Statements about the Subject
These statements are of the type “subject is adjective”.
Ex: Berde ang mga kotse.
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= The cars are green.
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Ex: Maganda ang babae.
Show
= The girl is beautiful.
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Ex: Matalino si Nick.
Show
= Nick is smart.
Show
Note Summary for Making Statements
word order is <adjective, subject>
subject takes ang-form
Modifying Nouns
These modifications are of the type “adjective noun”.
Ex: magandang babae
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= beautiful girl
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Ex: galit na estudyante
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= angry student
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Ex: maalat na pagkain
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= salty food
Show
Ex: mayamang lalaki
Show
= rich man
Show
word order is <adjective, linker, noun>. Please read Appendix C at this point if you aren’t familiar with the linker. But it’s common to reverse the order too.
Ex: babaeng maganda
Show
= beautiful girl
Show
Ex: estudyanteng galit
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= angry student
Show
Ex: pagkaing maalat
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= salty food
Show
Ex: lalaking mayaman
Show
= rich man
Show
To be consistent and reduce the number of cases I’d have to write about, I’ll use the adjective first from here on.
Plural Modified Nouns
To make unaffixed adjective modified nouns plural you just insert mga before the noun
Ex: berdeng mga kotse
Show
= green cars
Show
Ex: murang mga ospital
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= cheap hospitals
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Ex: galit na mga lalaki
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= angry men
Show
There are 3 ways to make ma-adjectives like magandang babae plural
method 1: magagandang babae
Show
= beautiful girls
Show
method 2: mga magandang babae
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= beautiful girls
Show
method 3: mga magagandang babae
Show
= beautiful girls
Show
The first one is most common so again, to be consistent and reduce my work load, I’ll use the first configuration from here on. Notice that you just repeat the first syllable of the root.
Ex: matatalinong estudyante
Show
= intelligent students
Show
Ex: maaalat na pagkain =
Show
= salty foods
Show
Note Summary for Modifying Nouns
word order is <adjective, linker, noun>
make plural by repeating first syllable of root
Chaining Adjectives
You can put adjectives together like this, one after the other.
Ex : malaking berdeng bahay
Show
= big green house
Show
Formed as <adj1 + linker, adj2 + linker,...,noun clause>
Sample Sentences
Q1
The drink is green.
Berde ang inumin.
Q2
cheap hot food
murang mainit na pagkain
Q3
The presidents are living men.
Mga buhay na lalaki ang mga presidente.
Q4
The teacher is angry.
Galit ang guro.
Q5
beautiful used car
magandang gamit na kotse
Q6
The hot pizza is salty.
Maalat ang mainit na pizza.
Q7
The beautiful students are Maria and Abby.
Sina Maria at Abby ang magagandang estudyante.
Q8
angry presidents
galit na mga presidente
Q9
The water is hot.
Mainit ang tubig.
Q10
Who are the rich intelligent women?
Sino ang mayayamang matatalinong babae?

Edited

Corrections

Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 3 Adjectives
Vocabulary
buhay
Show
living
Show
maalat
Show
salty
Show
maganda
Show
beautiful
Show
matalino
Show
intelligent
Show
berde
Show
green
Show
kotse
Show
car
Show
mayaman
Show
rich
Show
pagkain
Show
food
Show
lalaki
Show
boy; man
Show
mura
Show
cheap
Show
galit
Show
angry
Show
gamit
Show
used
Show
mainit
Show
hot
Show
Grammar
Adjectives are plentiful in Tagalog, and they can be single words or phrases. We will cover certain adjective phrases in later lessons.
Single word adjectives are either affixed or unaffixed. Please read Appendix B at this point if you aren’t familiar with Tagalog roots and affixes. Most affixed adjectives are ma-adjectives, so in this lesson we will cover unaffixed and ma-adjectives.
Unaffixed Adjectives
Unaffixed adjectives are merely roots with the appropriate stress and glottal stops. Note that they are pronounced differently from unaffixed nouns.
Ex: buhay
Show
= living (adj)
Show
Ex: buhay
Show
= life (noun)
Show
Ma-adjectives
To form these just add the affix ma to the root.
Ex: ma + alat(saltiness) = maalat (salty)
Ex: ma + ganda(beauty) = maganda (beautiful)
Ex: ma + talino(intelligence) = matalino (intelligent)
Usage
Adjectives have three main functions in Tagalog: 1) to make a statement about a subject 2) to modify a noun and 3) to be used as a noun. We’ll cover 3) in a later lesson.
Making Statements about the Subject
These statements are of the type “subject is adjective”.
Ex: Berde ang mga kotse.
Show
= The cars are green.
Show
Ex: Maganda ang babae.
Show
= The girl is beautiful.
Show
Ex: Matalino si Nick.
Show
= Nick is smart.
Show
Note Summary for Making Statements
word order is <adjective, subject>
subject takes ang-form
Modifying Nouns
These modifications are of the type “adjective noun”.
Ex: magandang babae
Show
= beautiful girl
Show
Ex: galit na estudyante
Show
= angry student
Show
Ex: maalat na pagkain
[I think the audio link for this currently says "maaalat na pagkain" (pl. salty foods) instead?]
Show
= salty food
[see note above]
Show
Ex: mayamang lalaki
Show
= rich man
Show
word order is <adjective, linker, noun>. Please read Appendix C
[add link] at this point if you aren’t familiar with the linker. But it’s common to reverse the order too.
Ex: babaeng maganda
Show
= beautiful girl
Show
Ex: estudyanteng galit
Show
= angry student
Show
Ex: pagkaing maalat
Show
= salty food
Show
Ex: lalaking mayaman
Show
= rich man
Show
To be consistent and reduce the number of cases I’d have to write about, I’ll use the adjective first from here on.
Plural Modified Nouns
To make unaffixed adjective modified nouns plural you just insert mga before the noun
.
Ex: berdeng mga kotse
Show
= green cars
Show
Ex: murang mga ospital
Show
= cheap hospitals
Show
Ex: galit na mga lalaki
Show
= angry men
Show
There are 3 ways to make ma-adjectives like magandang babae plural
:
method 1: magagandang babae
Show
= beautiful girls
Show
method 2: mga magandang babae
Show
= beautiful girls
Show
method 3: mga magagandang babae
Show
= beautiful girls
Show
The first one is most common so again, to be consistent and reduce my
work load workload , I’ll use the first configuration from here on. Notice that you just repeat the first syllable of the root.
Ex: matatalinong estudyante
Show
= intelligent students
Show
Ex: maaalat na pagkain =
Show
= salty foods
Show
Note Summary for Modifying Nouns
word order is <adjective, linker, noun>
make plural by repeating first syllable of root
Chaining Adjectives
You can put adjectives together like this, one after the other.
Ex : malaking
[maybe I missed the word "malaki" somewhere earlier?] berdeng bahay
Show
= big green house
Show
Formed as <adj1 + linker, adj2 + linker,...,noun clause>
Sample Sentences
Q1
The drink is green.
Berde ang inumin.
Q2
cheap hot food
murang mainit na pagkain
Q3
The presidents are living men.
Mga buhay na lalaki ang mga presidente.
Q4
The teacher is angry.
Galit ang guro.
Q5
beautiful used car
magandang gamit na kotse
Q6
The hot pizza is salty.
Maalat ang mainit na pizza.
Q7
The beautiful students are Maria and Abby.
Sina Maria at Abby ang magagandang estudyante.
Q8
angry presidents
galit na mga presidente
Q9
The water is hot.
Mainit ang tubig.
Q10
Who are the rich intelligent women?
Sino ang mayayamang matatalinong babae?
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