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Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 17 When - Kailan, Nang, Noong, Kapag, Kung
when (question word)
when, while, during (past actions)
when, while, during (past actions)
when, while, during (non-past actions)
if, when, while, during (non-past actions)
In this lesson we will cover when as a question word and as during.
Here it is as the question word kailan:
Ex: Kailan siya nagsalita?
= When did she speak?
Ex: Kailan ka maglilinis ng bahay?
= When will you clean the house?
If you mean when as in what time, you can use anong oras, which we saw in the lesson about telling time:
Ex: Anong oras siya nagsalita?
= When(what time) did she speak?
Notes for when questions
When questions word order is <kalian/anong oras, basic-sentence>
When as during
Past actions - noong/nang
Ex: Nagbasa ako noong/nang nasa kotse ako.
= I read when I was in the car.
You can reverse the phrases if you want:
Ex: Noong/nang nasa kotse ako, nagbasa ako.
= When I was in the car, I read.
It’s ok to omit the first phrase if you are answering a question:
Question: Kailan ka nagbasa?
= When did you read?
Ans: Noong/nang nasa kotse ako.
= When I was in the car.
We’ll use noong from now on to keep it separate from other uses of nang.
Non-past actions - kapag/kung
Ex: Nagbabasa ako kapag/kung nasa kotse.
= I’m reading when(while) I’m in the car.
Ex: Magbabasa ako kapag/kung nasa kotse.
= I’ll read when I’m in the car.
Note that these are only used for present and future actions. Also, kapag is often shortened to pag in colloquial speech. If we substituted if for when in the two English sentences above, the English meaning would change. But in Tagalog, kung can mean if or when,
Ex: Magtetennis siya kung maglinis sila ng kuwarto.
= She’ll play tennis if they clean the room. or She’ll play tennis when they clean the room.
so you need to have context to know what the exact meaning is. We’ll use kung for if, and kapag for when/while in the non-past from now on, but keep in mind that kung doesn’t always mean if when you hear it.
Notes for when as during
When as during word order is <phrase1, noong/nang/kapag/kung, phrase2>
The order of phrases can be reversed and the first phrase can be dropped to shorten the answer of a question.
Enclitics may go in either phrase, depending on which kind of construction the phrases have
Kung + question word
If you have a question word in a sentence, but the sentence isn’t a question, you need to put kung before it.
Ex: Hindi sila nagsabi kung ano ang inumin.
= They didn’t say what the drink is.
Notice that the question word ano (what) is in a sentence that isn’t a question. You can think of kung ano = as to what if it helps, but we normally don’t include the as to in the English translation.
Notes for kung + question word
To use a question word in a non-question sentence, put kung before it.
(infinitive will be covered in a future lesson)
When did they have lunch?
Kailan sila nagtanghalian?
I read who the teacher is.
Nagbasa ako kung sino ang guro.
While we are studying.
Kapag nag-aaral kami.
When I cleaned my car.
Noong naglinis ako ng kotse ko.
When will you brush your teeth?
Kailan ka magsisipilyo ng ngipin mo?
What time will we cook adobo?
Anong oras tayo magluluto ng adobo?
I will have dinner if y’all will cook.
Maghahapunan ako kung magluluto kayo.
We’ll (incl) meet when we’re in school.
Magkikita tayo kapag sa eskwelahan.
I read a book when she studied.
Nagbasa ako ng libro noong nag-aral siya.
What time will they ride bicycles?
Anong oras sila mag-bibisikleta?
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