Write & CorrectEnglish
Tagalog Grammar Lite Lesson 14 Word Order
This lesson consolidates the word order of the major sentence types learned up to this point. For a word order table of all structure types in this book, please see Appendix I.
You might have noticed that we keep adding items to the word order of the basic-sentence. The latest form was
If there is an IO = <verb, enclitics, actor, object, IO, location, time>
Actually, it’s ok to switch the order of some of these items, you’ll hear native speakers use alternate orders and if you ask they may tell you that the order doesn’t matter. But there are some phrases where switching the order can create an alternate meaning of the sentence. Mainly you have to be aware of unintentional sa-clauses and ng-clauses.
Ex: Nagbigay si Maria ng kotse kay Joe sa SM.
= Maria gave Joe a car, at SM.
is probably the most common translation, but it could also be interpreted as Maria gave a car to “Joe at SM”.
Ex: Nagbigay si Maria ng kotse sa SM kay Joe.
= While Maria gave a car, at SM, to Joe.
is one possible translation, Maria gave “a car at SM” to Joe is just as likely. Those sa-clauses can get you no matter what order you use, but here’s an example where switching the actor and object yields a more dramatic difference.
Ex: Kinain ni Ben ang mansanas.
= Ben ate the apple.
Ex: Kinain ang mansanas ni Ben.
= While The apple was eaten by Ben
is possible, a just as likely interpretation is Someone ate Ben’s apple. Quite a difference. Kinain isn’t a mag verb, so there’s no need to fully understand the grammar of this comparison; just know that straying from the word order could cause problems.
The order that I give you in this book not only allows you to get the sample sentences consistently correct, but they are the most common orders, or at least equally as common as alternate orders, and have been chosen to reduce the confusion noted above as much as possible. From this point on, I won’t discuss alternate orders.
To keep these sentence orders as brief as possible and make them easy to remember
A) we’ll drop <location, time> because these can be tacked on to the end of any sentence
B) we’ll drop the <enclitics> and instead indicate the primary enclitic magnate by making it bold
C) we won’t list alternate orders, but sometimes it will be necessary to mark items optional by using parentheses
That leaves us with
word order for basic-sentences is <verb, actor, object, IO>
form of actor/object/IO depends on verb type. For mag-verbs, actor takes ang-form, object takes ng-form and IO takes sa-form
Ex: Naglinis si Stephen ng bahay.
= Stephen cleaned the house.
Subject is Noun Sentence
subject is noun sentence word order is <subject, noun>
noun and subject both take ang-form
Ex: Si Mario ang presidente.
= Mario is the president.
Subject is Adjective Sentence
subject is adjective sentence word order is <adjective, subject>
subject takes ang-form
Ex: Maganda ang babae.
= The girl is beautiful.
Gusto/Ayaw Noun Sentence
gusto/ayaw noun sentence word order is <gusto/ayaw, experiencer, object>
experiencer takes ng-form. Object takes ng-form for something in general and ang-form for something specific.
Ex: Gusto ni Hugo ang bahay.
= Hugo wants the house.
Ex: Ayaw siya ni Tony.
= Tony dislikes her.
Mahilig Noun Sentence
mahilig noun sentence word order is <mahilig, experiencer, object>
experiencer takes ang-form, object takes sa-form.
Ex: Mahilig ako sa adobo.
= I like adobo.
Sino/Ano Interrogative Sentence
sino/ano sentence word order is <sino/ano, ang, basic-clause>
basic-clause word order and forms (ang/ng/sa) are derived from basic-sentence
Ex: Sino ang nagluto ng adobo?
= Who cooked the adobo?
Ex: Ano ang naglakad sa bahay?
= What walked in the house?
hindi sentence word order is <hindi, basic-sentence>
Ex: Hindi nagbasa ng libro si Miguel.
= Miguel didn’t read the book.
Read the book too. (po)
Magbasa ka rin po ng libro.
He likes money.
Mahilig siya sa pera.
Who ate dinner at 10pm?
Sino ang naghapunan nang alas dyes ng gabi?
Jane hates hospitals. (po)
Ayaw po ni Jane ng mga ospital.
What still gives you inspiration?
Ano pa ang nagbibigay ng inspirasyon sa iyo?
I like her house.
Gusto ko ang bahay niya.
We(excl) didn't teach them English.
Hindi kami nagturo ng Ingles sa kanila.
The drink is already hot.
Mainit na ang inumin.
They say they'll clean the room for him.
Maglilinis daw sila ng kuwarto para sa kaniya.
Leo is a student.
Estudyante si Leo.