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Tagalog Grammar Lite Appendix H Enclitics

Appendix H – Enclitics
An enclitic is a word that must follow a certain word in the clause called the enclitic magnate.
Let me clarify that most sentences in this book are just a single clause, so the enclitics will usually follow a single word in the sentence. But sometimes there are 2 or more clauses, and in that case, you need to remember that they go after the enclitic magnate of the clause that they belong to.
Enclitics are either a) enclitic particles or b) ang or ng-form personal pronouns.
When there is no enclitics word order is more flexible:
Nagluto si Maria ng adobo. = Maria cooked adobo.
Nagluto ng adobo si Maria. = Maria cooked adobo.
Both of these sentences are correct. Now let’s see what happens when we replace si Maria with siya:
Nagluto siya ng adobo. = Maria cooked adobo.
XXX Nagluto ng adobo siya. = Not a valid sentence.
Siya is enclitic, so it must go after the first word in the clause and therefore the second sentence is wrong.
When more than one enclitic appears in a clause, we will call it an enclitic cluster. They are pronounced together with no pauses as if they form a single word.
Nagluto po ba siya ng adobo? = Did she cook the adobo?
Po ba siya is pronounced as pobasiya
There is a fixed order that enclitics appear in the cluster:
A) ko, ka, or mo – the short personal pronouns
B) enclitic particles
C) the remaining personal pronouns
Here is a table that expands on B) above:
order
particle
meaning
1
na
now; already
1
pa
still;yet
2
man
even; although
3
nga
please particle
5
din/rin
also
4
lang/lamang
only; just
6
naman
please particle
7
daw/raw
it is said; according to
8
po/ho
formality particle
9
ba
question particle
10
pala
surprisingly
11
kayá
I wonder
12
muna
first
13
tuloy
proceed
14
kasi
because
15
yatá
I think
16
sana
I hope
Table 5: Order of Enclitic
Particles
Table 5 shows all the enclitic particles in the order they should appear in a cluster. The ones used in this book are in bold. For more information on particle meanings and usage, go to the Using Enclitics lesson.
Here is a table that expands on C) above:
order
personal pronoun
1
kita
2
ng-form personal pronouns
(niya,namin,natin,ninyo,nila)
3
ang-form personal pronouns
(ako,siya,kami,tayo,kayo,sila)
Table 6: Order of remaining
personal pronouns
Table 6 shows the remaining personal pronouns listed out. For more information on personal pronouns and their definitions, go to Appendix A.
Examples of enclitics in use to illustrate order:
Ex: Nagluto na siya ng adobo. = She already cooked adobo. This shows na, from group B above, going before siya, group C.
Ex: Magluluto ka rin ba ng adobo? = Will you cook adobo too? This shows ka, from group A above, going before rin and ba, group B. It also shows rin, ranked 5th in B, going before ba, ranked 9th.

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Tagalog Grammar Lite Appendix H Enclitics
Appendix H – Enclitics An enclitic is a word that must follow a certain word in the clause called the enclitic magnate. Let me clarify that most sentences in this book are just a single clause, so the enclitics will usually follow a single word in the sentence. But sometimes there are 2 or more clauses, and in that case, you need to remember that they go after the enclitic magnate of the clause that they belong to. Enclitics are either a) enclitic particles or b) ang or ng-form personal pronouns. When there is are no enclitics , word order is more flexible: Nagluto si Maria ng adobo. = Maria cooked adobo. Nagluto ng adobo si Maria. = Maria cooked adobo. Both of these sentences are correct. Now let’s see what happens when we replace si Maria with siya: Nagluto siya ng adobo. = Maria She cooked adobo. XXX Nagluto ng adobo siya. = Not a valid sentence. Siya is enclitic, so it must go after the first word in the clause and therefore the second sentence is wrong. When more than one enclitic appears in a clause, we will call it an enclitic cluster. They are pronounced together with no pauses as if they form a single word. Nagluto po ba siya ng adobo? = Did she cook the adobo? Po ba siya is pronounced as pobasiya . There is a fixed order that enclitics appear in the cluster: [You could keep this as a normal sentence, and then list the order of enclitics as A -C below?] A ) ko, ka, or mo – the short personal pronouns B) enclitic particles C) the remaining personal pronouns Here is a table that expands on B) above: order particle meaning Order Particle Meaning 1 na now; already 1 pa still; yet 2 man even; although 3 nga please particle 5 din/rin also 4 lang/lamang only; just 6 naman please particle 7 daw/raw it is said; according to 8 po/ho formality particle 9 ba question particle 10 pala surprisingly 11 kayá I wonder 12 muna first 13 tuloy proceed 14 kasi because 15 yatá I think 16 sana I hope Table 5: Order of Enclitic Particles Table 5 shows all the enclitic particles in the order they should appear in a cluster. The ones used in this book are in bold. For more information on particle meanings and usage, go to the read Lesson 13 ( Using Enclitics lesson ) [link] . Here is a table that expands on C) above: order personal Order Personal pronoun 1 kita 2 ng-form personal pronouns (niya, namin, natin, ninyo, nila) 3 ang-form personal pronouns (ako, siya, kami, tayo, kayo, sila) Table 6: Order of remaining personal pronouns Table 6 shows lists the remaining personal pronouns listed out . For more information on personal pronouns and their definitions, go to Appendix A [link] . Examples Here are some further examples of enclitics in use , to illustrate order: [Again, you could keep this as a normal sentence, and then list/indent the examples below?] Ex: Nagluto na siya ng adobo. = She already cooked adobo. This shows na In this example , "na" from group B above , going is placed before " siya , " from group C. Ex: Magluluto ka rin ba ng adobo? = Will you cook adobo too? This shows ka In this example , "ka" from group A above , going is placed before " rin " and " ba , " from group B. It also shows Also note how " rin " , which is ranked 5th in in group B, going is placed before " ba " , which is ranked 9th.
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